Reach for the Sky

It was four or five obsessions ago—before film noir, before the Iraq War, before Enron and the Italian neorealists and vegetarian cooking the Army-McCarthy hearings—that I really plunged into the gunmen of the Old West. It lasted a while, a year or two in any case, and in that time I bored certain people silly (Gary, Kathy, Cay—are you still out there?) with the exploits of such forgotten men as John Selman, King Fisher, and Outlaw Bass. For instance, there was the handsome train robber Tom “Black Jack” Ketchum,

who caused some excitement when his head popped off during his hanging,

and “Deacon” Jim Miller, the religious nut and hired killer who asked permission to keep his hat on before getting strung up in an Oklahoma barn,

and Henry Brown, the popular but poorly paid marshal of Caldwell, Kansas, who decided to improve his lot in life by robbing the bank one town over from his own. It was a bad move: a couple of citizens were killed in the robbery, then Brown and his friends managed to trap themselves in a box canyon that was filling up with rainwater. They surrendered and spent the day in the Medicine Lodge lockup, waiting for the mob to reach its boiling point; while not posing for photographs at gunpoint, Brown used the time to write a letter to his wife which ended: “It was all for you. I did not think this would happen.” When the mob finally came that night, Brown made a break for it and was shot down in the street. That’s Henry, second from the left there, in shackles:

Some of the most famous gunmen were so thickly embroiled in the currents of history they seem like frontier Forrest Gumps, yet one can’t say much about them as people. These were far from self-actualized men, to put it mildly, and they had no say in how others represented them. Some of them come across as sociopaths pure and simple, others as workingmen carrying capitalism to its logical end, but in the main their personalities don’t communicate across the ages in any illuminating way, leaving us only with their violent, often nugatory experiences. Those experiences, draped as they were in law-breaking and immorality, were a tangled web to begin with, and any remaining hope of clarity was dimmed when generations of dime novelists, journalists, and slipshod historians took to heart the words of the too-slick newspaper editor in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance: “When the legend becomes fact, print the legend.”

Every field is open to information abuse, but the Old West was left to the amateurs for so long that peer reviews and other reality-checks couldn’t obtain a toehold for decades, allowing writer after writer, for generation after generation, to repeat “the legend”—the myths, tiresome the second time you read them, that Billy the Kid shot a man for every one of his 21 years, that Hardin once shot a man for snoring. Indeed, “the legend” was regurgitated so many times that the writer-bibliographer Ramon Adams felt moved to compile Burs Under the Saddle, a virtual encyclopedia of errata which painstakingly corrects, one by one, the outright myths and half-truths peppering Western histories. Beyond the weekend warriors, the field has also seen its share of warlords and empire builders, most notably the belligerent and quite possibly insane Glenn G. Boyer, whose inexplicable mindgames have hindered serious researchers for years. Nor do publishers, especially in the academic world, offer much help when they saddle their offerings with presentations trivializing their own subject matter. When the University of Oklahoma Press reissued John Wesley Hardin’s autobiography for the first time in decades, this is what it looked like:

Likewise, Joseph G. Rosa’s indispensable pictorial biography The West of Wild Bill Hickok is available only in a cheaply produced edition even though Hickok led a life richer than Picasso’s, and the man himself, an incorrigible camera hound, possessed one of the great modern gazes in 19th Century photographs.


Despite all this, certain potent snapshots still jump out from the literature that is reliable: a disconsolate Hickok sitting on his bed, surrounded by firearms, as a half-dressed prostitute putters about his room; or Henry Brown’s vest catching fire from a pistol flash and going up in flames as he ran down the street during that escape attempt. These luminous, ephemeral glimpses have no more substance than heat lightning, and they’re no help at all to, say, the grad student writing a thesis on the economics of mining towns. Anecdotal history like this doesn’t leave much more than a feeling, but it’s a feeling that’s tangled up with the texture of some rugged lives once lived, a constant shifting between the gridpoints on a wilderness, an easy familiarity with violence, and the unmistakably American flavor of all these things; if nothing else it injects some small dose of grit and authenticity into an age of designer-ripped jeans and Lady Gaga.

John Wesley Hardin, for instance, came out of the East Texas hills, the son of a Methodist circuit rider (hence the name), and his early reputation as a mankiller was based on run-ins he had with freed slaves, Union soldiers, and the hated (by Democrats and ex-Confederates) State Police. Getting himself into scrape after scrape, he was a fugitive long before he was 20; in the Taylor-Sutton feud he shotgunned a man on the deck of a riverboat even though the fellow was known to be fleeing the territory; when he subsequently murdered a deputy and lit out again, a furious mob strung up his brother.

The Texas Rangers caught up with him on a train outside Pensacola, knocked him out, and renditioned his ass back to Texas, where he was given a 25-to-life prison term. In Huntsville he taught Sunday school—par for the course for celebrity felons today, but Hardin seemed to believe his own sermons, and he went one step further and began studying law. He served 20 years before he was pardoned in 1894, and the Texas of his youth was fading away fast. He passed the Bar but few people wanted to pay John Wesley Hardin for his legal advice. He married a 15 year old girl who fled on their wedding night and refused to discuss him ever again. The children from his first marriage, grown now, were strangers to him. He moved to El Paso and hung out a shingle.

There he began work on his autobiography, a book short on insight but long on detail, with names and dates supplied for almost every killing, some 30 or 40 in all. He distributed autographed playing cards drilled by bullet holes—keepsakes which are traded to this day. But things continued to slide downhill for him: not enough clients, a messy affair with the wife of one of the few clients he did possess, a card game that so pissed him off he scooped up the pot and walked out the door, silently daring anyone to object. The local newspaper, hearing of this, began a drumbeat: the day of the gunman was over. It was just a matter of when. There was one final dispute, one final exchange of charges and countercharges, this time with a degenerate constable, and on August 19, 1895—115 years ago yesterday—Hardin was playing dice in the Acme Saloon when John Selman stepped up and shot him in the back of the head.

Now, not even with a gun to my head could I tell you why I find these details irresistible. The fact is, I just do…

5 Responses to “Reach for the Sky”

  1. Reach for the Sky | Dog Canyon Says:

    […] and Outlaw Bass. For instance, there was the handsome train robber Tom “Black Jack” Ketchum,Read more at Tom Blog.             No CommentsStart the ball rolling by posting a comment on […]

  2. Doran Williams Says:

    “Nor do publishers, especially in the academic world, offer much help when they saddle their
    offerings with presentations trivializing their own subject matter.”

    As an example, check out the cartoonish cover on Joel Jacobsen’s “Such Men As Billy The Kid:
    The Lincoln County War Reconsidered,” University of Nebraska Press, 1994. Jacobsen is (or
    was at the time of publication) an assistant attorney general for the State of New Mexico. He
    wrote a well researched and documented, and very readable historical account of the Lincoln
    County War and of the outlaws and killers [including Texas Rangers and other “lawmen”], and
    victims who made that war and died from it. Purists will decry the cover (wish I had the tech to
    copy it and included it in this post) as being way, way below the quality of the scholarship and
    writing that the cover…..well, covers.

    How true; but even academic publishers want to sell their books, so they put outlandish covers
    on them and hope that the shoppers at HEB, the airport, and various pharmacies will be attracted
    to their books and will buy them.

    Has anyone written a book dedicated to identifying and recounting the depredations of the
    outlaw-lawmen of American history? Seems like fertile ground, to me. I suspect that Texas
    outlaw-lawmen are so numerous that a compact but intense volume could be produced. As you suggest, this kind of history book could “inject some small dose of grit and authenticity into an age of” slavish, unthinking adoration of LEOs as well as of “designer-ripped jeans and Lady Gaga.”

    Hope you don’t mind me posting this comment at Dog Canyon.

  3. glenn Says:

    very interesting about the old-time gunmen.  like you, i am fascinated by what we know of them.  picked up several new pieces of information here and appreciate it.

    i’m betting you are familiar with dee harkey, originally from near san saba, tx.  if you haven’t read harkey’s book, ‘mean as hell’, you need to find it and absorb it.  that is, assuming you still have interest.

    harkey was a sometimes lawman, sometimes rancher, who lived out his last days in eddy county, nm, near carlsbad, where i think he functioned occasionally as a cattlemen’s assn detective.

    harkey knew jim miller and had dealings with him off and on for many years.  he once arrested miller and said he regretted not killing him at that time.

    harkey claimed to have only killed one man and it had nothing to do with his law work or cowboying.  as a young adult he sharecropped with a fellow who was known to cheat people out of their crops.  when he came for harkey out in a field one day, the ensuing fight resulted in that man’s death.

    very interesting story, and, like yours here, well told.

    late in life harkey got into some kind of trouble with a young girl who was debilitated some way.  i’d really like to know the story of what happened.  probably impossible to get the true low-down, especially since truth can look so different from different angles.

  4. glenn Says:

    ‘truth can look so different from different angles’

    case in point: my father was born in feb 1895 at the family farmhouse just outside ingalls, ok.  the next farm over belonged to bill doolin, who came over sometimes in the evenings.  he liked children and rocked my dad’s older brother and then later my dad to sleep when they were infants.

    the picture my dad drew of him was a lot different from many i have seen, and my family’s feelings toward his killing was not particularly charitable.

    dad said his mother, particularly, kept after doolin to get out of his lawless business and may have been who got him to find a place in new mexico to start over.  it was on doolin’s trip back to ingalls to get his pregnant wife that he was killed by heck thomas.

    my grandmother firmly believed that doolin had never killed anyone, but i don’t see how that could be possible.

  5. Tom Block Says:

    I have no idea on that score, but it seems like even the lawmen looked at Doolin differently than they did most of the other rustlers and gunmen. He certainly doesn’t seem as much of a natural ruffian as a lot of the other characters back then.

    I’m impressed that your family had some dealings with him.

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